Detail from the Last Supper stained glass window in All Saints Parish Church Croydon, in memory of Sophia Mirabella Sandilands, wife of the rector 1859 'An Account of all the Inhabitants of the Parish of Croydon
in the County of Cambridgeshire commencing from 1 January 1843'
by Reverend Francis Fulford 1803-1868 (Rector at Croydon 1841-1845).
Additional notes by Reverend R S B Sandilands (Rector 1845-1864).
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Pages 10 to 19 (Annotated)

This is the annotated text of the "Speculum Gregis" pages 10 to 19 inclusive. This annotated version includes additional background material, family research contributions from readers, excerpts from the 1841 census, and some related photographs.

Also available is the basic text of the same 9 pages as an uninterrupted transcription and an alphabetical Index of Names.

  The wording used in both versions was originally a distillation of three separate transcriptions of the original hand-written text. Where the texts differed, I followed the majority unless historical evidence suggests I should do otherwise. I have subsequently transcribed the text direct from the original document so the corrected transcription used on this website (currently pages 1 to 29 inclusive) is therefore my own.

Explanatory notes are given at the foot of each page.

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2013 Rebuild: Everything from the original "Speculum Gregis" is shown in the left hand column and displayed in black text. Round brackets are original. [Any information additional to the original wording is shown within square brackets and in grey text.]

 

Further information, census, contributions and commentary additional to the original "Speculum Gregis" text is shown in the right hand column. Please note this new format is a 'work in progress' and will be rolled out over coming months..

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Return to Page 9 (Annotated)
Return to Page 9
(Annotated Text)
 
Forward to Page 20
(Annotated Text)
Continue to Page 20 (Annotated)
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10 Page 10
Next door.

John and Bathsheba Hagger
He can't read. She can a little. He works for Mr Ellis. He met with an accident and injured his right hand about 1 year and a half ago. William Payne's [p23] wife is their daughter.
   1. Emma Hagger, aged 18. Can read.
   2. James Hagger, aged 15. Can read, a wild lad.
   3. Jane Hagger, aged 12. In the Sunday School, a very
   sharp, clean girl and well behaved. [Candidate for
   Confirmation June 1844 but rejected as " too young and
   unsteady" - Rev Francis Fulford.]

They were married here and their children Christened in Croydon Church. Mrs Hagger is a very respectable woman and is our washerwoman.
Emma had a child by a Wendy man about a year since, but expected to marry him, but he deceived her. Saving this, she is a very well conducted young woman and a clean good servant, and has been much afflicted at her misfortune, and I believe on proper grounds. She is a good servant, and are intended to have taken her RSBS: (and did take her) to London.

[Above transcription corrected against original document on
28 August 2008]

  [View as Basic Text]
Additional information:

Cottage still in existence. Described as 'new' in 1843.

? Hagger = ? ? = ?
(?-?)    (c1784-1863) (?-?)    (?-?)
|
|
John Hagger (?-?) = Bathsheba (?-?)
  m = ?  
 
|
 
  Mary Hagger (?-?) = William Payne
Emma Hagger (?-?)
James Hagger (?-?)
Jane Hagger (?-?)
 
Tree: Deduced (additional information greatly appreciated)
Speculum Gregis names shown in bold.

1841 Census: John Hagger (aged 55), agricultural labourer, wife Bersheba Hagger (45), children James Hagger (13) and Rebecca* (10).] [*Rebecca's surname not given. It is possible that (a) Rebecca might be Emma's baseborn child and the age shown
indicates 10 months, or, (b) Rebecca could be Jane and simply a recording error by the enumerator. Emma and Jane do not appear elsewhere in the Croydon census.]

Proposed locations of the cottages covered page 5 to page 13 of the 'Speculum Gregis'

The above is a 'best guess' assumption pending further information. Apart from the unknown location of the cottage (p3) near Church Farm, the above layout fits Fulford's page-by-page descriptions reasonably comfortably. The Rectory, Horse Pond and the 'Queen Adelaide' (p14) still exist and provide the basic framework. Please let me know if you have any information that links a 'Speculum Gregis' family to a specific dwelling.

John and Bathsheba's cottage is the one on the left.© Google Street View 2009.

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11 Page 11
The bottom house in the row below the "Queen Adelaide"
William John and Ellen Law
Can both read. He is a dissenter - and brother to James Law [p76] at Croydon Wilds. She attends Church.
He has a son by a former wife - Charles, aged 9 - and one daughter by his present wife, Ellen, aged 1 year - baptised in Croydon Church.

[Above transcription corrected against original document on
28 August 2008]

  [View as Basic Text]
Additional information:

"The bottom house in the row below the "Queen Adelaide" is taken to mean the lowest cottage and nearest to the public house (see key below). The cottage still exists. It is probable it was a two-storey dwelling from the outset - the two other cottages in the row were almost certainly single-storey until the early 1900's.

Law = ? ? = ?
(?-?)    (?-?) (?-?)    (?-?)
|
|
William Law (c?-1886) = (1st) ? (c?-?)
  m = ?  
 
|
 
  Charles Law (c1831-?)
 
Tree: Deduced (additional information greatly appreciated)
Speculum Gregis 'names' shown in bold.

Law = ? ? = ?
(?-?)    (?-?) (?-?)    (?-?)
|
|
William Law (c1806-1886) = ( 2nd) Ellen (c1808-1887)
  m = ?  
 
|
 
  Ellen Law (c1842-?)
 
Tree: Deduced (additional information greatly appreciated)
Speculum Gregis 'names' shown in bold.

1841 Census:
Ellen Law (aged 25), Charles Law (7)

Grave marker in Croydon Churchyard for William and Ellen Law. Click for larger image. Gravestone in Croydon Churchyard.
"William Law who died 28 January 1886 aged 79 years also of Ellen his widow who died 17 March 1887 aged 78 years"
Click for larger image.
Photo: Steve Odell

Is it common for a known dissenter to be buried in the parish church churchyard?

Proposed locations of the cottages covered page 5 to page 13 of the 'Speculum Gregis'

The above is a 'best guess' assumption pending further information. Apart from the unknown location of the cottage (p3) near Church Farm, the above layout fits Fulford's page-by-page descriptions reasonably comfortably. The Rectory, Horse Pond and the 'Queen Adelaide' (p14) still exist and provide the basic framework. Please let me know if you have any information that links a 'Speculum Gregis' family to a specific dwelling.

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12 Page 12
Richard Mo[u]le and his Wife
Blacksmith. Several sons and 2 daughters, one in service. They are a very wild set and hardly ever enter a place of worship. The wife I believe to be a well-intentioned woman, but surrounded by a bad lot.

[Above transcription corrected against original document on
28 August 2008]

  [View as Basic Text]
Additional information:

Cottage possibly still in existence but it is believed this was a single story dwelling until c1900 (see Croydon Photographs). The cottage may have been completely rebuilt. I'm not even certain if the row 'below the Queen Adelaide' was of two separate cottages or three. The photograph looking down on the village c1900 shows a yard adjoining cottages p12 and p13 which might have been the Smithy.

Local records use both Mole and Moule as the family name.

The Mo(u)le family ran a Smithy in Croydon from the 1840s to c. 1900 (Kellys Directories).

? Mole = ? ? = ?
(?-?)    (c?-?) (?-?)    (?-?)
|
|
Richard Mole (?-?) = Lettucie (?-?)
  m = ?  
 
|
 
  William Mole (c?-?) [p13]
James Moule (c1820-?)
George Moule (c1825-?)
Joseph Moule (c1825-?)
 
Tree: Deduced (additional information greatly appreciated)
Speculum Gregis names shown in bold.

1841 Census: Richard Moule (aged 55), smith, wife Lettucie Moule (50), children James Moule (20), journeyman, George Moule (15) and Joseph Moule (15).

Proposed locations of the cottages covered page 5 to page 13 of the 'Speculum Gregis'

The above is a 'best guess' assumption pending further information. Apart from the unknown location of the cottage (p3) near Church Farm, the above layout fits Fulford's page-by-page descriptions reasonably comfortably. The Rectory, Horse Pond and the 'Queen Adelaide' (p14) still exist and provide the basic framework. Please let me know if you have any information that links a 'Speculum Gregis' family to a specific dwelling.

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13 Page 13
William and Sarah Mo[u]le
He is eldest son of the last people [p12], can read very well, as can she. He works for his father as a blacksmith.
   1. Marianne Mole, aged 11. Attends the Sunday School.
   2. John Mole, aged 10. Attends the Sunday School.
   3. Luke Mole, aged 7. Attends the Sunday School.
   4. William Mole, aged 4.
   5. David Mole, aged 2.
Sarah Mole was confined again February 10 (I believe) 1843 with a daughter.
He works hard - and she is a bad-tempered woman - has used her eldest son very cruelly and seldom attends church.
RSBS: (Later: The two eldest boys the most troublesome and disorderly that I found in the School. They are both out of it now. The third bids fair to give as much trouble. It is difficult to say which parent is the least in fault.)

[Above transcription corrected against original document on
28 August 2008]

  [View as Basic Text]
Additional information:

Cottage possibly still in existence but it is believed this was a single story dwelling until c1900 (see Croydon Photographs). The cottage may have been completely rebuilt. I'm not even certain if the row 'below the Queen Adelaide' was of two separate cottages or three. The photograph looking down on the village c1900 shows a yard adjoining cottages p12 and p13 which might have been the Smithy.

Local records use both Mole and Moule as the family name.

The Mo(u)le family ran a Smithy in Croydon from the 1840s to c. 1900 (Kellys Directories).

Richard Mole = Lettucie ? = ?
(?-?)    (c?-?) (?-?)    (?-?)
|
|
William Mole (?-?) = Sarah [Mary?] (?-?)
  m = ?  
 
|
 
  Marianne Mole (c1829-?)
 John Mole (c1830-?)
Luke Mole (c1833-?)
 William Mole (c1836-?)
  David Mole (c1840-?)
Alice Mole (c1843-?)
Jonus Mole (c1845-?)
 
Tree: Deduced (additional information greatly appreciated)
Speculum Gregis names shown in bold.

Croydon Parish Baptisms 1840-1845: 20 September 1840, David Moule, son of William and Sarah, blacksmith; 19 March 1843, Alice Moule, of William and Sarah, blacksmith; 30 March 1845, Jonus Moule, of William and Sarah, labourer

1841 Census: William Moule (aged 30), smith, wife Mary Moule (30), children Mary Moule (9), John Moule (8), Luke Moule (5), William Moule (3) and David Moule (6 months).]

Proposed locations of the cottages covered page 5 to page 13 of the 'Speculum Gregis'

The above is a 'best guess' assumption pending further information. Apart from the unknown location of the cottage (p3) near Church Farm, the above layout fits Fulford's page-by-page descriptions reasonably comfortably. The Rectory, Horse Pond and the 'Queen Adelaide' (p14) still exist and provide the basic framework. Please let me know if you have any information that positively links a 'Speculum Gregis' family to a specific dwelling.

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Page 14
The "Queen Adelaide"
Thomas Larkins and wife
They keep the "Queen Adelaide". He is a carpenter. I can't say much for them
1 grown up daughter, for some time in Lady Hardwicke's nursery.
1 son, in the Sunday school. [Alfred Larkins aged 11?]
1 daughter, about 6 years old.
The wife has never been to church since her last child was borne, except for her churching them.
RSBS: (He is one of the choir - died in 1847. Since his death, his widow has attended Church; the eldest daughter also, who was confirmed in 1847.)
[Croydon Parish Baptisms 1840-1845: 23 August 1840, Jane Elizabeth Larkins, daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth, carpenter]
[1841 Census: Thomas Larkins (aged 40), publican, wife Elizabeth Larkins (40), children Emma Larkins (15), Alfred Larkins (9). Also staying Carilione Larkins (15) and Jane Larkins (10 months).]
[Above transcription checked against original document 28 August 2008]
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Page 15
Next door.
Anne Chapman
A widow, can read.
1. William Chapman, aged 12, attend[s] the Sunday school. [Confirmed 22 June 1844]
2. James Chapman, aged 9, attend[s] the Sunday school.
3. Edward Chapman, aged 7, attend[s] the Sunday school.
[Above entry is crossed through]
Now live in the Walnut Field.
[Marries Austin Simpson - see page 85]
[1841 Census: Ann Chapman (aged 35), children William Chapman (12), James Chapman (9) and Edward Chapman (6).]
Caleb and Maria Payne
And one little boy.
He can read. They are very nice respectable people. She irons for us. They are regular at Church. He is shepherd for Mr Ellis.
[Above transcription checked against original document 28 August 2008]
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Page 16
Next door.
William and Emma Thacker [William c1808-1862][Emma Ashford c1810-1884]
He is son of James Thacker (page 2) and can read - she cannot. He works for Mr Elliston.
1. William Thacker, aged 12. In the Sunday school.
2. Jane Thacker, aged 9. In the Sunday school.
3. Emma Thacker, aged 4.
They buried one child aged 14 months, 7 October 1842, called Mary. They attend Church very constantly, and are very respectable people, particularly the man. Her name was Easy [brother of John Easy page 54] before she married. They were married and all their children Christened in Croydon Church.
[Emma was Baseborn as Ashford. Her parents were John Easy and Fanny Ashford. When she married William she was known as Ashford.][Contributed by Dennis Tokley 2004]
[1841 Census: William Thacker (aged 30), agricultural labourer, wife Emma Thacker (30), children William Thacker (10), Jane Thacker (7), Emma Thacker (3).]
[Croydon Parish Baptisms 1840-1845: 18 July 1840, Marianne Thatcher, daughter of William and Emma, labourer; 13 July 1845, David Thacker, born June 14, of William and Emma, labourer]
[Within England a lure was to the new industrial areas of the Midlands, North West and West Yorkshire. Whole families packed up and left for a new life in these areas. There are examples of agents actively negotiating with Parish officials in Cambridgeshire to arrange for workers to be shipped to the mill towns which then took them off parish relief. These journeys were made possible by an improved railway network, the push of desperate conditions for the poor and the pull of regular work in the North.
William Thacker (b1808) and his family moved from Croydon to Burley, Leeds in Yorkshire, circa 1852, although his son William Thacker (b1831) apparently returned to Croydon c1856 to live. William Thacker appears on the 1851 census for Croydon but on the 1861 census he is listed as living in Stansfield Road in Burley. He died the following year. Emma Thacker's parents (Easy/Ashford) had moved from Croydon to Leeds in 1836 being part of the parish assisted migration of out-of-work agricultural workers from Cambridgeshire.][Contributed by Dennis Tokley 2004]
Lodge in the same house with them.
David and Sarah Mole
He is a shoemaker, belongs to Arrington, and goes there to his work every day. They have one child born before their marriage.
1. David Mole, aged 5, in the Sunday school.
She seems to be going into a decline. [Above entry is crossed through]
Left the parish.
[Local records use both Mole and Moule as the family name]
[Above transcription checked against original document 28 August 2008]
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Page 17
Next door.
William and Mary Lee
He is son to Elizabeth Lee (page 68), and can read. She can read a little.
He works for Mr C King. They are very respectable people. He sometimes attends Wendy Church Morden Dissenting Chapel, at other times both attend Croydon. They were married and their child Christened at Croydon Church.
1. Charles Lee, aged 3/4 years.
[Above entry crossed through]
[Mary died of Typhus fever - See also reference on page 53]
[Croydon Parish Baptisms 1840-1845: 1 May 1842, Charles Lee, son of William and Mary, labourer]
[1841 Census: William Lee (aged 30), agricultural labourer, wife Mary Lee (25). Also living here at the time of the census was Ester Thomas (30).]
Joel How and his wife
He works for Summerkin, the Arrington blacksmith. Has one son by a former wife [Elizabeth who died in her confinement in April 1842, leaving an infant child], daughter of Elizabeth Lee (page 68). He is not a parishioner of Croydon, and I hear he is about to leave the parish.
[Croydon Parish Baptisms 1840-1845: 1 July 1841, Hezekiah Howe, son of Joel and Elizabeth, labourer]
[see 1841 census entry on page 68]
Lives with the above
Anne Thomas

A widow, mother of Mary Lee, also of Edith Hopkins and Edward Thomas. She can't read, attends Croydon Church.

[Above entry crossed through]
[1841 Census: Ann Thomas (50) was living with John and Edith Hopkins. See page 38.]
[Above transcription checked against original document 28 August 2008]
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Page 18
Next door.
Samuel and Hannah Graves
They can both read. He works for Mr Merry, and generally attends Bassingbourn Meeting. She is sister to Mary Newman and Kezia Law. Very steady people.
1. Samuel Graves, aged 6 months. Christened in Croydon Church.
[Above entry crossed through]
[Croydon Parish Baptisms 1840-1845: 18 September 1842, Samuel Graves, of Samuel and Hannah, labourer]
[1841 Census: Samuel Greaves (aged 25), agricultural labourer, living at Mr Chandler Merry's Farm.]
Richard Carter, mentioned before (page 1), lives here now.
Anne Graves
A widow, mother of Samuel Graves. Also she has a daughter, Jane, aged 26, rather deformed, who lives with her. They can both read, attend Croydon church, very nice, good, respectable people. Her maiden name was Lee. Both these are communicants. Jane Graves works very well at her needle, and Mrs Fulford used to let her have some work occasionally.
[Above entry crossed through]
[Croydon Parish Baptisms 1840-1845: 17 September 1843, Jane Graves, aged 27, of Ann and Samuel, labourer]
["moved here now" see Page 46]
[1841 Census: Ann Greaves (aged 60) and Jane Greaves (20).]
[Above transcription checked against original document 28 August 2008]
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Page 19
The next house in the road to Hagger's.
James and Elizabeth Woods
He can't read. She keeps a day school, and is schoolmistress in the Sunday School and is a communicant. She comes from Wimpole, where they were married [22 Apr 1834 James Woods to Elizabeth Gadd]. They both attend Church very regularly. He is a most honest hardworking man and can turn his hand to all sorts of out of door work.
Elizabeth Woods
Mother to James, aged and deaf. Never attends Church because she says she can't hear.
RSBS: (She is as deaf as a post.)
RSBS: (Later: Dead now.)
[1841 Census: Elizabeth Woods (aged 70), son James Woods (35), agricultural labourer, his wife Elizabeth Woods (50), and child Elizabeth Woods (9).][Wimpole parish records have an Elizabeth Gadd baptised 20 June 1790 which confirms the given census age of 50, but would Elizabeth Woods aged 9 be a granddaughter or visiting relative?]
[Above transcription checked against original document 28 August 2008]
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(Annotated Text)
 
Forward to Page 20
(Annotated Text)
Continue to Page 20 (Annotated)
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Explanatory Notes: Fulford generally devoted one page to each property; and I have retained his page numbers as serials for the entries. Crossings out shown are as in the original document. Information, footnotes and commentary additional to the original "Speculum Gregis" texts are shown as [grey text in square brackets].

In the pages of the original "Speculum Gregis", two handwritings are apparent, that of Francis Fulford (entries from 1843 to 1845) and that of his successor, the Rev Sandilands (entries from 1845 to 1848). The notes by the Rev Sandilands have been shown in this online edition as RSBS: (dark blue text within round brackets) and sometimes identified as a later entry. However, having taken the opportunity to check the first 30 pages of the original manuscript, I found that quite a number of comments attributed to Sandilands in "The Rector and his Flock" were actually in Fulford's handwriting. I assume from the chronology of some of the entries in the later 61 pages that there will be other attributions that will fall into this category.
  A national Census was taken on the 6 June 1841, three weeks before Fulford's arrival in Cambridgeshire and eighteen months before the "Speculum Gregis" was started. Details from the Croydon-cum-Clopton census have been added to page entries where appropriate. Note that the ages of adults were generally rounded to the nearest five years by the census enumerator and therefore they should not be taken as a reliable indication of age. The enumerator also reported that 26 Croydon labourers were "having left the district for the hay harvest in the neighbourhood of London", which would explain the absence of a number of the known heads of households.

I want this site to be as accurate and as informative as possible - please let me know if something is wrong, however trivial the correction. I would also welcome additional information to add to the annotated text - especially from those with 'family' in Croydon between 1840 and 1850.

Please e-mail with full details.

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